In this video you will know a bit more about one of the most important characters during this century: FERDINAND VII.
THE SPANISH WAR OF INDEPENDENCE.
- In 1808:
- Napoleón Bonaparte, the Emperor of France, invaded Spain.
- The King Ferdinand VII was forced to abdicate.
- Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte, became king.
- Opposition to his reign led to the Spanish War of Independence.
- The Spanish parliament, or Cortes, took refuge in Cadiz. In 1812 they wrote the first modern Constitution, the Constitution of Cadiz (La Pepa).
- It limited the king's power.
- It stablished the right of citizens, including the vote for 25 year-old men.
THE RESTORATION OF FERDINAND VII:
- In 1814 Ferdinand VII was restored as King. Initially, he did not accept the Constitution and he ruled in an authoritarian manner.
- In 1820 Ferdinand VII was forced to accept the Constitution after the revolt. Three years later he was restored as an absolute monarch with the help of the French.
- The political chaos in Spain caused an independence movement in the Spanish colonies in Spain.
- In 1824 all the American colonies except Cuba and Puerto Rico were independent.
CONSERVATISM AND LIBERALISM:
In 1833, Ferdinand's daughter, Isabella II, came to the throne. During her reign there were conflicts between two groups:
- Conservatives, they had traditional values, and supported an absolute monarchy.
- Liberals, they wanted reforms to modernise the country. They supported the Constitutions, and favoured limitations on the powers of the monarch.
There were many coups d'etat by army officers and in 1868 Isabella was exiled.
In 1873, the First Spanish Republic was proclaimed, but it lasted less than a year. In 1874, the monarchy was restored under Isabella's son, Alfonso XII.
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